Select tube from the list
Parameters at operaing point
Ua =  [V] Ia =  [mA] Ug =  [V] Ri =  Ra =  [KΩ]
S =  [mA/V] µ [V/V]
Harmonic distortion for Uinp =  
h2 =  [%] h3 =  [%] h4 =  [%] htot =  [%]
Single Stage Grounded Cathode Amplifier Parameters
Rk =  Prk =  G(rk) =  [V/V] G(rk=0) =  [V/V]
Symbol Description
Ua Anode voltage at operating point.
Ia Anode current at operating point.
Ug Bias voltage (grid voltage) at operating point.
Ri Plate (internal) resistance at operating point.
Ra Plate load resistance.
S Transconductance calculated at operating point.
Ia Anode current at operating point.
µ Amplification factor of a tube at operating point.
Rk Cathode resistor.
Prk Power dissipation of cathode resistor.
G(rk) Gain of a single stage amplifier with cathode resistor.
G(rk=0) Gain of a single stage amplifier without or bypassed cathode resistor.
Triode Koren's model optimizer (Trial version)
Paste the data into a text box. Optimizer accepts data in a format utilized by "uTracer" tube tester. Sample data is already entered into a text box. You can use the data from the tester or read them from the anode characteristics published by manufactures. Optimizer uses the simulated annealing algorithm. When you press the [Import data] button, data are loaded and pre-generated model of the tube is created. It is a good practice to press the [Import] button several times to find the best starting point before optimization. To determine the parameters of the model, successively press the [Optimize] button and watch the value of the cost (error) and temperature. Repeatedly pressing the [Optimize] button you reduce the temperature and cost. When the temperature decreases to 1.0 or less, further optimization does not increase the accuracy of the model. The defined model can be sent to the "Tube loadline Simulator" and / or you can generate its description in the Spice format. Have fun experimenting.